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NAD+ levels increased by 50%, and the new ingredient trigonelline has an anti-aging effect comparable to NMN?-Part Two

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NAD+ levels increased by 50%, and the new ingredient trigonelline has an anti-aging effect comparable to NMN?-Part Two


What is Trigonelline?

Trigonelline, scientifically known as trimethylxanthine, is a type of pyridine alkaloid, mainly derived from the leguminous plant fenugreek. In addition to fenugreek, this alkaloid also exists in coffee beans, and is the second most abundant alkaloid in coffee beans, second only to caffeine. Trigonelline is also distributed in small amounts in many plants such as soybeans, alfalfa, and mulberry leaves.

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Trigonelline is a precursor substance for the flavor produced during the coffee roasting process. It is one of the sources of coffee bitterness and is also a precursor component of many aromatic compounds. In addition, trigonelline has multidimensional physiological functions. It can not only improve mitochondrial function and increase muscle strength, but also has strong antioxidant properties, which can help remove free radicals and reduce cell damage.          

  • Lowering blood sugar

Studies have shown that trigonelline can reduce blood sugar and insulin levels and increase the insulin sensitivity index in rats with type 2 diabetes. In addition, trigonelline increased pancreatic weight, pancreas-to-body weight ratio, and insulin content, indicating that trigonelline may reduce blood sugar levels by promoting pancreatic β-cell regeneration and improving insulin resistance.       

  • Antioxidant properties

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the main marker of oxidative stress, which can lead to cell damage and the occurrence of various diseases. Studies have found that trigonelline can not only significantly reduce intracellular ROS levels, but also reduce pancreatic malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. content, increase superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities].          

  • Anti-aging

Studies have shown that trigonelline supplementation can increase NAD+ levels, increase mitochondrial activity, and help improve the aging process. In nematodes, trigonelline can reduce age-related muscle atrophy and extend lifespan. In mice, trigonelline supplementation can increase muscle strength and prevent fatigue during aging.          

  • Improve cognitive function

Studies have shown that trigonelline improves the transcriptomics of learning and memory decline in the senescence-accelerated mouse pron 8 (SAMP8) model by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines and increasing neurotransmitter release [4]. In addition, trigonelline can induce the growth of functional synapses in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, which is related to its mechanism of action in improving memory.          

  • Lowering blood lipids

In GK type 2 diabetic rats, trigonelline reduced serum and liver triglyceride levels, decreased liver fatty acid synthase activity, and increased liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase and glucokinase activities.

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